HELPFUL REFERENCES
Silicon Structure

Carrier Concentration vs. Resistivity (Si, Ge)
Calculates carrier concentration (atoms per cubic cm) and resistivity (Ω-cm)
http://www.solecon.com/sra/rho2ccal.htm

Crystal Planes in Semiconductors – Miller Index
Crystal lattice planes can be characterized by a three digit number called a Miller Index.
http://www.ee.byu.edu/cleanroom/EW_orientation.phtml

Diamond Cubic – Visualization Software
This software helps visualize Silicon’s diamond cubic unit cell structure
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Diamond_Cubic-F_lattice_animation.gif

Silicon
Wikipedia article about the element Silicon
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon

Wafers

Die Per Wafer Calculator
Uses inputs such as wafer diameter, die size, die spacing, and edge exclusion to calculate the total number of whole die per wafer
http://mrhackerott.org/semiconductor-informatics/informatics/toolz/DPWCalculator/Input.html

Wafer Orientation vs. Wafer Flats
One or two flats ground into the edge of the wafer indicate crystal orientation, and generally applies to wafers 125mm in diameter or smaller
Flat Orientation.pdf

Standard Wafer Thickness
This chart shows the SEMI standard wafer thickness associated with each wafer diameter.
Wafer_ThickVsDiameter.pdf

Films

Oxide Thickness
Uses variables, such as time, temperature, desired thickness, and ambient conditions to calculate outcomes for thermal oxides
http://www.lelandstanfordjunior.com/thermaloxide.html

Silicon Dioxide Thickness – Color Chart
Silicon dioxide film thickness can be determined visually by film color, especially if the number of fringe lines is known.
ColorChart_SiliconDioxide.pdf

Silicon Nitride Thickness – Color Chart
Silicon nitride film thickness can be determined visually by film color, especially if the number of fringe lines is known.
ColorChart_SiliconNitride.pdf

RCA Clean
The RCA clean is a widely used method to remove organic and metallic residues.
RCA Clean.pdf

General

Online Conversions
Convert units of measure for almost anything, including science, engineering, industry, and business.
http://www.onlineconversion.com

IC Glossary
Definitions for Integrated Circuit and Semiconductor terminology
http://www.icknowledge.com

LTPD Calculator
Uses number tested, number failed, and confidence level to calculate Lot
Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD), which represents buyer’s risk
http://www.maxim-ic.com/tools/calculators/index.cfm/path/qa/calc_id/ltpd


Silicon WafersCeramic PackagesWafer ProcessingOperations ManagementSemiconductor EquipmentReferences

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